[期刊速览]《国际经济评论》2018年第1期 (总第133期)

2018-02-14 13:07 来源:中国社会科学网 作者:《国际经济评论》编辑部

   反思对中国外汇储备问题的讨论

   作者:管 涛

  摘要:经历了近年来外汇储备急涨急跌的波动后,我们有机会反思和检讨前期关于中国外汇储备问题的诸多讨论。主要结论是:中国外汇储备充裕,确实有助于抵御跨境资本流动冲击风险,为汇率改革和调整争取了时间;保储备不是保规模而是保信心,它与保汇率不是二选一的选择题,而是一个硬币的两面;束缚货币政策的不是央行是否持有外汇储备,而是汇率政策操作;本币对外贬值有助于减少央行外汇储备持有的汇兑损失,但这是一种短视而危险的做法,因为央行持有外汇储备要算大账,而不能只算小账。

  关键词:外汇储备 适度规模 金融安全 跨境资本流动冲击

  Review of Discussions About China’s Foreign Exchange Reserves

  Guan Tao

  After witnessing the drastic fluctuations of foreign exchange reserves in recent years, we have reviewed the previous discussions about China’s foreign exchange reserves. Our main conclusions are as follows: China’s abundant foreign exchange reserves indeed help fend off cross-border capital flow shocks and bought time for exchange rate reforms and adjustments. The aim of defending the reserves is not to keep a certain scale, but to protect market confidence. Defending the reserves is not an alternative for defending the renminbi’s exchange rate; they are actually two sides of one coin. It is not whether the central bank keeps foreign reserves, but how the exchange rate policy is carried out, that constrains the monetary policy.

  It’s short-sighted and dangerous to devalue the renminbi with a view to reducing exchange losses of foreign reserves held by the central bank.

  

  医疗价格形成机制和医疗保险支付方式的历史演变——国际比较及对中国的启示

  作者:朱恒鹏 彭晓博 

  摘要:近年来,伴随着医疗费用的快速上涨,中国多地的医疗保险基金陷入入不敷出困境。在财政收入增速下降的经济新常态下,“开源”难度较大,“节流”不失为更佳选择。如何更有效率的“节流”,是当前学术界和政策制定者关注的焦点问题之一。从历史演进视角认真梳理国际上医疗保险支付方式的发展历程,是完成这一任务的必不可少一环。本文择要阐述了医疗服务价格形成机制的演变过程,重点讨论了医疗保险制度引入后医疗服务供方、需方和医疗保险三方互动确定和调整医保支付方式的过程。阐明医疗保险制度下的医保支付机制即为医疗服务价格形成机制,这一机制是引导医疗资源配置和医患双方诊疗行为的关键。同时,通过国际经验比较,阐述了这一机制有效发挥作用所需的基础性制度安排。

  关键词:医疗保险 医疗服务价格 支付机制

  Evolution of the Provider-Payment System and Healthcare Pricing:International Comparison and Lessons for China

  Zhu Hengpeng and Peng Xiaobo

  Many local healthcare funds have been in debt recently as medical expenditures increase rapidly. Given the new economic normal state, in which economic growth slows and financial revenues decline, it is better for China to improve management of existing resources than seeking to expand sources of incomes. Therefore, how to raise the distribution efficiency of the country’s limited medical resources has become a focus of discussion by Chinese scholars and policymakers. To that end, it is indispensible to first examine the evolution of healthcare payment methods in other countries. This article summarizes the evolution of the formation mechanism of healthcare service prices and mainly discusses how the healthcare payment methods are determined and adjusted by medical service providers, patients, and insurance companies after the introduction of the healthcare system. The article finds that under the healthcare system, the health service payment mechanism, or the healthcare payment mechanism, plays a key role in guiding healthcare resource distribution and behavior of medical service providers and patients. Meanwhile, through international comparison, the article also discusses the fundamental systematic arrangements that are needed to bring out the role of such a healthcare payment mechanism.

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